OBJECTIVES: This article describes Canadian civil servants' awareness of, attitudes toward, and self-reported use of ideas about the determinants of health. METHODS: Federal and provincial civil servants in departments of finance, labor, social services, and health were surveyed. RESULTS: With civil servants in finance departments a notable exception, most Canadian civil servants see the health of populations as a relevant outcome for their sectors. Many (65%) report that ideas about the determinants of health have already influenced policymaking in their sector, but most (83%) say they need more information about the health consequences of the policy alternatives their departments face. CONCLUSIONS: Civil servants should consider developing accountability structures for health and researchers should consider producing and transferring more policy-relevant research.